If there’s one thing to take away from a trip to Thailand, it is most definitely the stunning Wats – i.e.Temples. The country is filled with magnificent Buddhist temples, some dating back centuries and others much younger. You can find temples made of stone, wood and even recycled beer bottles! They all offer mesmerizing sights and a sense of peace to all who visit. If you are into world religions, visiting these Temples is a must.
Top Tips for Thai Temple Visits
Bar girls and lady-boys aside, Thailand is a modest country.Even though there are no actual rules; Staying ‘more covered than not’ will be appreciated (Plus you’ll likely enjoy better service). For anyone travelling to Thailand, pay attention to the dress code for Thai temples as it’s where you’re most likely to cause offence. I am not just talking about the basic rule – which is to cover your shoulders & knees fully – but also make sure to cover up any tattoos you have of Hinduism or Buddhism. A lot of locals will take offence as they believe it is a sign of disrespect! Most temples with tourist traffic have signs asking visitors to cover up, yet you’ll see many oblivious souls who still manage to miss this final memo.
You will also benefit by bringing a pair of ankle socks with you, to put on at the temple entrance. You’ll need to leave your shoes outside and enter temples barefoot. Just like hot sand in the Mediterranean, the tiled floors at many temples get extremely hot in the Thai sun – painfully so. Be careful in socks, though, as the floors can be slippery!
Wat Arun is known as the Temple of Dawn, and gets its name from the Hindu god Aruna, often personified as the radiations of the rising sun. This temple, rising above the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok, is nothing short of spectacular when it’s lit up against the night sky. One of Thailand’s landmarks, the temple is just as stunning when lit up by the morning sun. The Khmer style tower, covered with colorful porcelain, glistens in the sun. Surrounding buildings are covered in seashells and more porcelain.
WAT PA MAHA CHEDI KAEW
One of the more unique temples in Thailand is the Temple of a Million Bottles! Not your usual Buddhist temple! The Temple has about 1.5 million recycled glass bottles in its design; glass bottles are even used in the toilets. Mainly green Heineken and brown Chang bottles are used; bottle caps are used to create mosaics. The complex has about 20 buildings, including prayer rooms and a water tower. Talk about recycling!
WAT PHRA THAT LAMPANG LUANG
Wat Phra That Lampang Luang is one of the most sacred temples in Thailand, home to a strand of Buddha’s hair. It also is considered one of the best examples of Lanna architecture. The 13th century temple has a conical spire that is more than 400 meters high. It features a triple-tiered wooden roof supported by immense teak pillars and early 19th-century Jataka murals (showing stories of the Buddha’s previous lives) painted on wooden panels around the inside upper perimeter.
SANCTUARY OF TRUTH
The Sanctuary of Truth in Pattaya gives new meaning to the word “impressive.” Intricate carving cover every inch of the wood structure, which is filled with traditional Buddhist and Hindu decorations. It is a newer temple, a work in progress; it began in 1981 and is scheduled to be completed in 2050. Its aim is to honor the traditional ancient values of earth, knowledge and Eastern philosophy by teaching about human responsibility, thought, cycle of life, and life’s relationship with the universe.
Fancy a trip to Thailand? Get in touch with our team via Mango Travels today!
The habitual phrase every student encounters during there time at university. For some it was an ice-breaker, a conversation starter or perhaps a search for something in common. For me, at first, it was entertainment. Watching the puzzled look on their faces as they scramble to put together an accent that doesn’t match the stereotypical appearance. You would think a city like London that prides itself on diversity and multiculturalism would be used to accents not matching their appearances but apparently an Indian girl with an Irish accent was still fairly new to a few! Sometimes I would even get accused of putting my Northern Irish accent on…
But nevertheless beneath the humor, ignorance and amusement lay a question that slowly pulled me apart. Something I wasn’t aware of that haunted me. I began to dread explaining who I was or where I called home. People began asking me-
“If India and Ireland played against each other in sport who would you support?”
The habitual phrase hauntingly laughed in my face each time a person asked me where I was from. Having been born and raised in Ireland but lived much of my childhood in India from the ages of 6-11, I began to question where my loyalties lied. It lead me to many nights of ponder, reflection and contemplation when finally it hit me.
Why does one place have to define where you are from?
People of mixed ethnicity don’t seem to have a problem telling the world they are best of both and no doubt in colonial times there were many people who referred to themselves as having two nationalities or ethnicity. I began watching films to do with Africa and its colonial past with Europe, I read up on several books to do with India and its colonial past with Britain, I researched about the creole people of Louisiana, about the different races of the Caribbean and they all taught me one thing. Cultures that have mixed have resulted in wonderful creations in food, language, art and culture (Looking past the colonial oppression and unspeakable horrors). So why then must we stick to one? I always joke with my Caribbean friends that without cultural mixing of Africa and India there would essentially be no Jamaican Curry Goat and Trinidadian Roti! My point is the world would be a boring place if we all had an absolute unyielding mindset.
I come from two lands rich in heritage and culture who suffered the same monstrous wounds at the unfortunate hands of the British. They both are all too familiar with the ache of separation from their own people and land. They still have not yet forgotten the trauma of being ripped into two. Sectarianism and differences shattered India and Ireland and in order for some peace to remain – Pakistan and Northern Ireland were born.
Instead of uniting together in their similarities the lost brothers and sisters slashed themselves in two. Once I realized the unnecessary pain that came with your ego stubbornly declaring who it was, I began to see how similar both places I call home actually were. Both places have outstanding breathtaking scenery untouched by the hands of man; They share equal knowledge of farming and agriculture passed down by generations; Both places are known for their wide diaspora around the globe – anywhere you go in the world there will no doubt be an Irish pub and an Indian run corner shop; Both of my people are highly enthusiastic about whiskey and being merry!The same patriotic colours pulse through our veins with pride – Green, White and Orange.
So I came to the conclusion that although the two lands are at different corners of the world, they share a great deal of similarities that overrule the worries that the habitual phrase Where are you from? brought.
After all, we are all one and the same earthlings that originated from the same place – today we call it Africa.
Ps. Would support neither in sport – who actually cares!
In today’s modern age, make-up can be found in almost every society and culture on Earth. When you flick back through history books it is hard not to notice the war paint on soldiers faces, the tattoos of tribes, the Khol eyes of the ancient Egyptians, the red bindi of South Asians, the white powdery faces of Elizabethans and the red petal lips of Japanese Geishas.
The Egyptian eye Khol
Manduruku portraits via Al Jazeera America
The Elizabethan Era
However, make-up in the 20th century boomed. Hollywood gave us classic looks like Coco Chanel’s signature pale face, dark eyes, and daring red lips, the 70’s and 80’s brought us dramatic hair and eyes, the 2000’s brought us more soft poised looks and now we are living in what some describe it as the ‘Kardashian Era’. This ‘boom’ of make-up is responsible for today’s rise of MUA’s.
Marilyn Monroe 1950
Cher for Vogue 1972
Beyonce for Crazy in Love album 2003
Kylie Jenner 2017
Kim Kardashian 2009
The last decade in particular seems to have brought make-up to a new age. Between Kylie Cosmetics, Inglot, Bobbi Brown, Mac Cosmetics, Urban Decay and Fenty Beauty (and so much more!) the world has gone into a make-up frenzy! The world has seen a rise of MUA’s, Ireland in particular, and if you are wondering why, it seems to have stemmed from patriotic roots.
World War II and it’s chaos brought for many British and Irish women the movement “Beauty is a Duty”.
Something that Irish beauty salon owner Toni Kelly, 27, tells me about. She recalls her grandmother reminiscing of those days – “It stems back to the 50s. I remember my granny saying when the men were away working or in the army, all the ladies got together and dolled themselves up! Comparing skin routines, going to the hairdressers weekly – it was more a social thing. There was a sense of community, and of course they had to look well for the men coming home at the weekend!”
@tonikelly.mua has an impressive 11k followers on Instagram in which she displays her highly talented works of art. As she applies make-up to my face, she passionately discusses her make-up journey- “Obviously growing up I watched my mum and aunts doing their makeup, I loved watching how it brought them to life! Like I literally remember my mum putting on a bright pink lipstick and thinking to myself ‘wow that’s so much nicer she has colour to her face’! I would try copy them and I always stole my mum’s makeup bag to have a wee play about-“ She laughs. “-But it wasn’t until my university days that the light bulb switched on in my head. I studied Theatre at Queens University Belfast, I loved the practical side to drama, I loved the stage, especially when I could escape and become someone else for a brief moment! Makeup in theatre has an important role but when I think about it more, makeup can give you a new persona similarly to the way a character on stage does.
Makeup can build confidence, it can empower you to be more than just average, you can be who ever you want to be with makeup and I think that’s what attracted me the most!
I used to watch a lot of YouTube videos when I was at uni, I became obsessed with how girls all over the world could change themselves with makeup. However, what sticks out most is the time I was going to my uni placement on the BBC set and a makeup artist had been called out to do makeup backstage; I was in total awe of her, she was so cool, she had a real relaxed aura about her! She seemed like she loved her job and I remember thinking to myself wow I can’t believe she has a career from ‘just’ doing makeup, I want that! I think this is when the seed was planted.”
“I still think I will change my mind some day randomly, and do something completely different to what I do now. I feel like when you love what you do everyday it’s not a job but a passion, sometimes I feel like I’m cheating! I would maybe do something a little more rewarding in the sense of giving back, maybe within the caring profession.”
“It’s just so funny that makeup turned out to be my calling as l I was such a tomboy when I was younger. I would have much rather be outside playing football than painting my face- not that I was ever any good at football.” She laughs. “It was only when I started into my 4th year of secondary school that I became more of a girly girl. I think I loved that my friends asked me to do their makeups and they’d ask me for advice on what to wear what to do with their hair. It worked out in my favour because when I started doing makeup, I made all my mistakes on my friends! They were my biggest critics and very honest ones at that, so it was good for confidence building!”
She begins to do my eyes now, a bright pink from @melkiorprofessional.uk ‘Sunflower’ and ‘Fuchsia pink’. She describes her first salon job at ‘Harkin Hairdressing’ Strabane where she worked right after she graduated.
“I was 21 – and was getting my hair done by one of the staff and I mentioned I did make-up from home and I got a call that night from one of the owners asking if I could work the next morning. So I did and they literally dumped a whole list of clients on me on my first day! But it was great because I picked up things faster when I was under pressure. I honestly didn’t know back then that I would open my own salon, I was kind of stuck as most people feel at that age. I hadn’t really ‘found myself’ as people say! I then worked from home again for 2 years at the age of 22-24, and at 25 I opened my own salon Enchanted Beauty in September 2016.”
“Practice practice practice! If you want to be good at something you need to put in the work. Perfecting a skill takes time and a lot of effort, invest in yourself you can never stop learning. I treat my client how I would like to be treated, I don’t see getting my makeup done as just a makeup application but an therapeutic experience. Always document your work I was always so hard on myself but it’s nice to see progress keep a portfolio of your work! Get experience, may it be cleaning brushes at a makeup salon or doing your cousins, cousins granny… get the experience in! I used to travel mobile house to house with a small case of makeup when I first started. I don’t think the money I made even covered my Diesel money, but it was a learning experience, and it helped build my clientele.”
@desiperkins– She’s a goddess. So stunning, her makeup looks are always so glowy and she’s very honest and down to earth. @mmmitchel– I trained with him recently and he is a gem, his talent is out of this world. He will forever make me want to be a better makeup artist. His work is literally art and I feel like I’ve witnessed a star first hand I was so inspired.
@keilidhmuabecause she’s Irish ha jk her skill is incredible, she’s a very good teacher. Her YouTube content is fab something for everyone she is very funny/ wacky again always inspired!
@tonikelly.mua’s Must Have Products
– Nars Long wear radiant foundation shade Barcelona – full coverage, olive tone, matte full coverage finish
– Loose translucent setting powder to control my oily skin (Airspun buy @amazon)
– Mac mineralise skin finish bronzer ‘dark tan’ (this is probably my favourite makeup product )
– makeup atelier illuminating primer flv3 on my skin and shoulders to make it more dewy
– Plouise eyeshadow palette, the best formula I’ve ever used to blend out with
– Tatti lashes tl4 fluffy and full but not too false
– Illamasqua highlighters both OMG + EPIC they make your skin so glossy without sitting separate from your skin some highlighters can look too sparkly these still look like your skin
– Mac lip liner whirl, (brown nude lip liner perfect to overline if you need to) lipstick peachstock (perfect peachy nude) Mac myth lipglass (the most pigmented lip gloss ever)
– Couldn’t live without Mac fix plus – just love this mist I couldn’t do a makeup with out it, keeps everything hydrated I’d use about 3 – 5 sprays over the skin and eyes when doing a client – key
The determined 21year old MUA @amar_guramis another great example of the rise in talented Irish MUAs. Amar is currently studying Business Information Technology at Queens University Belfast, working an internship, and juggling doing make-up and hair in her salon at the weekends! She keeps herself busy and is highly driven that’s for sure! Growing up with her I have witnessed her hard work and dedication first hand.
“Makeup sort of just creeped up on me! I was always obsessed with hair from a young age as I was part of a family full of hairdressers, but in my teenage years the makeup industry became more mainstream. You started to pay more attention to details of what celebrities were doing with their make up. What brand it was, where could I get it, that sort of thing. It became more classy I think as opposed to just throwing on whatever you had.”
Make up companies knew exactly how to get everyone’s attention, through media. The rise of social media brought along with it adverts, paid sponsorships and the lot. Pushing certain brands and looks onto celebrities helped pave the way for my generation’s outlook on make-up. Another version of propaganda, but this time there was no war!
“Whilst I was at school, I worked at my mum’s salon, Harkin Hairdressing, on Saturdays washing hair. I was 15 when the salon opened a makeup bar and it was from then that I discovered my passion for the makeup industry. I think it was my love for art that helped me discover this passion for makeup. I would watch the girls in the salon do clients makeup and be so inspired, I would then go home use my mum’s makeup and experiment on myself. I was thrown in at the deep end in a busy salon and told to pick up a makeup brush and start doing makeup on clients. I would watch makeup tutorials on YouTube – which by the way was nothing like it is now! This is pre-Instagram times – before coming into work that weekend and try to recreate what I had watched on clients.”
Toni and Amar worked together for a few years at Harkin Hairdressing.
“When I turned 18, I decided to get more serious about beauty, but I still wanted to go to university. So I opened my own salon at home in 2014, Amar Guram Make-up Artistry, and because my mother and father both owned their own businesses, it inspired me to pursue business at university. This worked out perfectly for me as I could still commute home to do my clients for the weekends and still get my education! It did mean I worked all week and then at the weekends as well but I didn’t mind so much because hair and make-up is my passion.
Amar Guram Make-up Artistry, Strabane.
As time went on I took various beauty courses and can now say I have a few skills under my belt!” She smiles. “I hope to use my beauty skills and business knowledge together again in the future but this time maybe for a management role for a multinational beauty company!”
“You need to be smart in this industry, nowadays with make up becoming so popular there will be a less demand for them. You need to set yourself aside from everyone else. Make sure you have something to fall back on, but always always pursue your passion no matter what! Even if it means working 6/7 days a week!”
@staceymariemua – Everyone’s fav she’s the Insta makeup Queen! Her makeup skills are next level and so inspiring.
@tominamakeup– Her colour combinations are everything. I love her signature blown-out feline look.
@makeupbyariel– Kylie Jenner’s MUA of course. I love Ariel’s style of makeup. He completely transforms and accentuates people’s features but does so using soft neutral tones. I find myself using his images for inspiration when doing my own makeup.
@amar_guram’s Must Have Products
Every day I prefer wearing minimal makeup – I have very oily skin and so prefer to use a powder foundation. For my everyday makeup I use:
Powder – Mac pressed powder in shade NC35,B
bronzer – Mac Mineralize Skinfinish in shade Dark,
Mascara – Maybelline
Brow gel – NYX.
Eyes – I switch between bronze, warm or neutral tones.
I love minimal makeup underneath the eye with a smokey flicked liner on the upper lash line.
Skin – Bronzed, translucent, golden glowing skin – Mac Mineralize skin finish in Dark & Deep Dark.
I like to mix my foundations with a luminizing moisturiser like Mac Strobe cream to create a dewy translucent finish
Lips – Glossy nude and neutrals – NYX Buttergloss.
See more of Amar’s work follow her on her FB and Insta! 💄
As mentioned earlier, in today’s technological world, social media and online platforms have a big part to play in the rise of MUA’s. Like Toni and Amar both mentioned, YouTube played a big part in their success as MUAs. A perfect example of this is the exceptionally talented 21 year old @beth_callaghan.
Beth is a self-taught make-up artist who is also from Strabane. She is a student of Business Studies at the Ulster University, Magee.
“As some may know I am also a self-taught make-up artist and do makeup every Friday and Saturday. Now in the summer months I am so happy to be able to do make-up all week and now offer make-up lessons! I absolutely love makeup and anything girly and love being creative!”
“From doing Irish dancing when I was younger, I always remember having to do feis makeup from a very young age. I would say I was 9/10 when I had to start wearing feis makeup which was my first time ever wearing makeup. And it’s crazy looking back being so young having to wear a wig and makeup, but I absolutely loved it! I actually remember my mum letting me use her makeup and I thought I was amazing!” She laughs. “I actually remember putting a Rimmel roll on shadow in the colour gold all over my lid and I thought this was amazing…bless my wee heart! But from then that’s when I grew my passions and love for makeup and creativity!”
“Due to Irish dancing I began doing makeup from the age of 14/15 at feis’. This was what really made me want to do makeup as I loved glamming’ people and seeing them happy and more confident in themselves. But aside from doing makeup at feis’ I have been doing makeup for clients in my own salon at home for nearly 4 years and I absolutely love it.”
“From studying Art at GCSE, A-Level and then going on to do a foundation degree in Art, creativity has always been something I loved and experimenting also! I have never had any make-up lessons aside from going to a few make-up events. I am completely self-taught. I find make-up just like painting, and from YouTube tutorials I have taught myself! I feel I have always been creative from art and from doing makeup at such a young age I learnt very young! I am proud to say I’ve taught myself.”
Beth has taken the role of social media as her marketing technique. She uses a theme to entice her audiences and is very clever about it!
“It’s all down to my best friend Tristan McGavigan @TGavy! His Instagram is amazing! And as you can see from my theme I love pink, what girl doesn’t?! Tristan has been my real inspiration for this and he taught me how to organise and start up my theme – so it’s a big shout out to T Gavy! From having a theme I think it makes my Instagram look so much more professional and also lets me be organised when posting images!”
“Makeup is such a fun industry to be in, so I can say for sure that in 5 Years I still want to be doing it! However in the future I hope to be more successful in my career and hopefully have a few surprises on the way to share with everyone! My main motivation is my followers and people I look up to such as Keildh Cashell and Stacey Marie. Their work really inspires me to be creative and think outside the box!”
Advice from @beth_callaghan for Young MUAs
Just be yourself! As Karl Maeser says ‘Be yourself, but always your better self.’ This motivates me to be a better person than what I was the day before. I also purchased a book from ASOS that I read every morning/night called ‘the little book of positivity’ by Lucy Lane. This book inspires me to be a better person and always look at a positive outcome. Positivity and motivation is what keeps me going in life. And I always think of something positive rather than negative as I don’t want negativity or people bringing me down in life – we don’t need that?!
@mmmmitchel – I am just simply obsessed with him and his work!
There is soooo many more I love as well such as
Nikki Tutorials, Keildh Cashell, CiaCia, Brookelle, James Charles, Vanessa Davis, Gabrielle Alexis, Patrick Starrr, Nikita Dragon, Louise Lavern, PLouise, Lipstick nick – the list is literally endless I LOVE THEM ALL!
@beth_callaghan’s Must Have Products
Shockingly as a make-up artist I try not to wear make-up everyday! I love letting my skin breathe.
My everyday ‘uni’ look would simply be NYX pore filler primer, ABH tinted brow gel in ‘Chocolate’ a NARS radiant tinted moisturiser, and mascara!
I feel not wearing a lot of makeup everyday makes you feel better when you put on more makeup when you’re going out as it looks so different in comparison to your everyday makeup!
To see more of Beth’s work follow her on her FB and Insta! 💄
We discussed the differences in make-up in N.Ireland and Ireland in comparison to England, and why it is much more of a big deal here. Here is what each of them had to say.
“Ireland, especially smaller towns like ours, make more effort because we are a tight knit community. We all like to discuss what we will wear and what we will do with our hair and makeup on the lead up to big events. I feel we take pride in how we look and we like look our best or maybe we a like to outdo each other! Cities and towns in England seem to be a lot more relaxed, they have a more casual social scene. Where they go out after work in their work clothes, it’s more fast paced and career driven over in England, I find the makeups are stripped back maybe because they like to utilise their time differently but maybe it’s because they don’t get judged as harshly as you would in a smaller town like ours.”
“I think certain places in England, like small towns still have the same outlook on make-up as ours! But anywhere you go in the world you will get places that are more casual and places that enjoy dressing up… it depends where you go.”
“I am really not sure… I wasn’t aware of this until quite recently when I did a few ladies make up from Manchester, and they said that they never get their makeup done and even rarely for their prom which I couldn’t believe! I think as there are so many inspiration makeup artists in England people from there might not necessarily feel they live up to their standards. I feel there are so many amazing makeup artists here in Ireland such as Ellie Kelly who is doing amazing, and I’m not sure why it’s so much more popular here rather than in England. You would assume as England’s bigger that makeup would be more popular over there!”
Rihanna’s Bad Gal image wouldn’t exist without the iconic Mathangi “Maya” Arulpragasam, or MIA as she’s most popularly known.
She’s a genius. An authentic musician and artist, way ahead of her time. MIA is one of the first artists to use the vaporwave aesthetic in her videos. By combining so many different influences from various cultures around the globe along with artistic interpretations, her music sends a political statement.
A woman of colour, with Sri Lankan and Tamil origins. Her father was involved in Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS), a political Tamil group affiliated with the LTTE. As a result she spent 11 years of her life in hiding (real bad gal vibez) but moved back to West London later.
Her music is not about generating as much sales as possible, it’s about REAL music. Her music doesn’t fit in the molds of the ‘norm’, i.e. the charts. M.I.A’s music is about pleasing the artistic brain in the listener. Whereas artists such as Rihanna or Katy Perry, or even Lady Gaga are made to appeal to a certain audience. One thing is for sure, she can appeal to the mainstream audience if she really wanted to – we seen that with her Paper Planes tune.
Her visual’s are not only inspiring but extremely creative. In her ‘XXXO’ video, directed by herself, she includes animated web graphics associated with social networking sites as if to mimic the new generations craze of social media. At the end of the video she even writes “Thank you for adding me” which was typical of Facebook and MySpace in 2007/2008. None of this was ever done before.
BUT alas, how you ask, has this 42 year old mother of two contributed to Riri’s savage image?
M.I.A. ‘Boyz’ was released in June 2009 and Rihanna’s ‘Rude boy’ was released in February 2010…
M.I.A.’s ‘Jimmy’ was released in June 2009 and Rihanna’s ‘Where have you been’ was released in April 2012.
Plus I always loved how she incorporated her Asian roots with western culture, so original. I can’t emphasize how different this millennial would have been without her. The amount of artists, hits & sub-cultures that were influenced by M.I.A is crazy. Rihanna is just one.
Fun fact; did you know the Barbadian singer and fashion icon Rihanna has Irish ancestry?
Indeed, through her father, the ‘Work’ singer has what Bajan’s call ‘Redleg’ genes. Many of the Redlegs’ ancestors were forcibly transported by Oliver Cromwell consequent to his Conquest of Ireland. Others had originally arrived on the shores of Barbados in the early 17th century as “indentured servants”. History books will tell a different tale of these ”indentured servants” but luckily I have stumbled upon an informative article (with picture evidence) of today’s Bajan Redlegs.
Written by Irish photographer Sheena Jolley –“In all, more than 50,000 Irish were transported from Ireland to Barbados (more were sent to other islands in the West Indies), many of them prisoners captured by Oliver Cromwell during the wars in Ireland and Scotland and following the Monmouth Rebellion. The slaves became known as Redlegs, almost certainly a reference to the sunburn they picked up in the hot tropical sun.” “Today, the few hundred remaining Redlegs in Barbados, also known as the Baccra, a name they were given as they were only allowed to sit in the back row at church, stand out as anomalies in a predominantly black population, struggling for survival in a society that has no niche for them, looked down upon by both blacks and better-off whites.”
Sheena continues to explain – “The Redlegs have retained a racial pride and a degree of aloofness from their black neighbors, mostly marrying within their own community. They do not know much about Ireland except that some of their ancestors came from there. Though one man I met, Wilson Norris, is passionate about Irish music and has a collection of CDs, these people are poor and their main concentration is on survival, not the past.”
By the 18th century, the Irish slaves became less common as they were now paid. African slaves were trained in all necessary trades, so there was no demand for paid white labour. The Redlegs, in turn, were unwilling to work alongside the freed slave population on the plantations. Therefore, most tried to emigrate to other British colonies whenever the opportunity arose, which reduced the white population to a small minority; and most of the white population that chose to stay eked out, at best, a subsistence living.
The Redleg descendants of indentured servants today are extremely poor, almost all living in shacks in the countryside. Many Redlegs reside in St. John’s Parish. For the small Redleg community still living on Barbados, most live a poorer standard of life than the black population, relying on farming or running small shops and brothels that serve the wealthier black population.
Oliver Cromwell is highly controversial among historians for his brutality in Ireland. But it is argued he is to blame for the worst atrocities committed in Ireland, such as mass evictions, killings and deportation of over 50,000 men, women and children as prisoners of war and indentured servants to Bermuda and Barbados. Some even say he is to blame for the famine and the plague which resulted after the wars which came as a result of the Cromwellian conquest.
A beautiful concept introduced by the 1st Sikh Guru – Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji- in the 1500’s, which indicates that there is only one single reality, and so only one God in which we are all one with everything.
Ek – translates into ‘One’
On- pronounced ‘Oang’ translates into ‘Creator’
Kar- translates into ‘Creation’
The sound ‘Oang’ and ‘Kar’ is a melody that manifests in billions of galaxies and universes. Sikhism ultimately states that everything gets merged back into this sound; and that this has happened countless times before. Similar to the ‘Om’ soundॐ , some consider it a variation.
Sikhism is one of the youngest major religions of the world that promotes equality, selfless service and meditation. Sikhism’s English translation of the holy scripture (Sri Guru Garanth Sahib) is placed in a palanquin at NASA as NASA’s scientists state it is full of information supporting the Big Bang Theory among others such as galaxies and eclipses.